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Table 3 Definite action of melanin against bacterial and viral pathogens

From: Synergy of melanin and vitamin-D may play a fundamental role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections and halt COVID-19 by inactivating furin protease

Anti-bacterial References Anti-viral References
Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi,, Vibrio parahaemolyticusListeria monocytogenes, Bacillus megaterium
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilus, Vibrio cholerae, Stapylococous aureus, Salmonella paratyphae, Klebsella oxytoca.
Xu et al., 2017 [87]
Vasantha-bharathi et al., 2011 [88]
Influenza Virus
Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2)
Herpes simplex type 2, and vaccinia.
Guobing et al., 1999 [89]; Ashkinazi et al.,2019 [90]
Sidibe et al., 1996 [91]; Montefiori & Zhou., 1991 [66]; Ashkinazi et al.,2019 [90]
Ashkinazi, et al., 2019 [91]