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Table 1 Summary of CTRPs expression in pathophysiological states and their metabolic functions

From: Emerging roles of C1Q tumor necrosis factor-related proteins in metabolic diseases

CTRP Tissue expression Obesity Diabetes CVD NAFLD PCOS Signaling pathways& Physiological function References
CTRP1 Adipose tissue, heart, liver, muscle, ovary, kidney, placenta, prostate ↑ human
↑ ob/ob mice
↑ T2D ↑ CAD
↑ MI
↑ NAFLD
↑ NAFLD with T2DM
AMPK, p44/42-MAPK
↑ FA oxidation,
↑ Glucose uptake,
CTRP1 loss disrupts lipid and glucose homeostasis,
CTRP1 KO mice prone for MI Rosiglitazone ↑ CTRP1
[9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22]
CTRP2 Adipose tissue, lung, liver, testis, uterus, Stromal vascular cells ↑ ob/ob mice ↑ CAD AMPK, ACC, p44/42-MAPK
↑ Energy expenditure;
↑ Insulin sensitivity;
↑ Lipid tolerance;
↑ Glycogen accumulation and FA oxidation in myotubes,
[7, 10, 19, 23,24,25,26]
CTRP3 Adipocytes, Fibroblast, pancreas, kidney, thymus, ↓ Human
↓ DIO
↑ ob/ob mice
↓T2D ↓MI   ↓ PCOS women p-ERK, p-p38 MAPK, p-AKT, AMPK
↓ Adipogenesis,
↓ Gluconeogenesis,
CTRP3 KO reduces liver size,
↑CTRP3 with fasting GLP-1R agonist improves IS by increasing CTRP3
[27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37]
CTRP4 Brain, Adipose tissue, Skeletal muscle ↑ ob/ob mice ↓Apetite
↓ Body weight.
[7, 38, 39]
CTRP5 Adipose tissue, liver, Heart, Brain, Lung, Pancreas, uterus, thymus, skeletal muscle ↑ Human
↑ ob/ob mice
↓ T2D ↓ CAD ↓ NAFLD
↓ NAFLD + T2DM
AMPK, ACC, p38 MAPK
↑ Insulin action and hepatic steatosis due to loss of CTRP5
Regulates glucose and lipid metabolism
↓Insulin sensitivity in liver
[10, 26, 40,41,42,43,44]
CTRP6 Adipose tissue, heart ↑ob/ob mice
↑ Human
     AMPK, Akt
↑ FA oxidation
Regulate glucose and lipid metabolism.
↓ MI induced Cardiac fibrosis.
[26, 45, 46]
CTRP7 Skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, lung, placenta ↑Human
↑ob/ob
mice
  ↑ CAD    Calorie restriction
↑CTRP7 impairs glucose metabolism
[25, 26, 47,48,49]
CTRP9 Adipose tissue, Brain, heart, liver ↑Human
↓ DIO mice
↑ T2D ↓ MI
↓ CAD
  ↑ PCOS women P44/42 MAPK, Akt, AMPK/ eNOS/NO
↑ FA oxidation
↓ Apetite
↓ Ischemic reperfusion injury
↓ Hepatic and skeletal muscle triglycerides protect against hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance
[34, 50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58]
CTRP10 Adipose tissue, Brain, Placenta ↑ ob/ob mice   [26, 38]
CTRP11 Adipose tissue, Brain, Kidney       P44/42 MAPK
↓ Adipogenesis
[7, 38, 59]
CTRP12 Adipose tissue. ↓ ob/ob
↓ DIO
↓T2D    ↓ PCOS women PI3K/Akt, AMPK
Antiinflammatory
↑ Insulin sensitivity
↓ Gluconeogenesis
Rosiglitazone ↑ CTRP12
[14, 60,61,62]
CTRP13 Brain, adipose tissue       ↓ Food intake
↑ Insulin sensitivity
Rosiglitazone ↑ CTRP13
[63, 64]
CTRP15 Skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, liver ↓HFD mice   ↑CAD    PI3/Akt/ mTOR
↑ Fatty acid uptake in adipocytes, hepatocytes and skeletal muscle
[7, 38, 49, 65, 66]